Instructions for Using the Databases
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Instructions for Using the Databases

Use the table of contents below to jump to the topic of interest.

Search Options
General Search Help
Field Search Help
Display Options
Full-Text Availability


Search Options

You may search the database using two options.

Basic Search allows you to search for any word or combination of words within a reference.

Advanced Search allows you to search for any word or combination of words within a reference as well as by specific fields including author, title, source, series, report number, etc.

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General Search Help

General search help shows the proper syntax to use when searching for words and phrases, along with examples of each technique. Other topics include how to use advanced search features such as the AND-OR-NOT droplists and how to search using a range (commonly used for searching dates). Use the table of contents below to jump to the topic of interest.

Searching

It's easy to find the information you want!

  1. Type query criteria. If you fill in more than one box, results must meet all criteria. Example: Find documents that contain the word "sandstone" AND have a file date of 8-15-04.
  2. Click Submit Query.
  3. Documents that meet your criteria are displayed as a report.
  4. To change the way documents appear, pick a form from the report droplist.

Finding words and phrases

Type the word you want to find (bauxite) or type a phrase (electron paramagnetic resonance) to find those words, in that order. To find variations of word stems, type an asterisk at the end of one or more words (elast* wave*). Use the symbols & / ! between words or phrases to represent Boolean AND, OR, NOT. Include a space before and after the symbol. Use the proximity operators w# (within) and p# (preceding) to find words near each other. See examples below.

Type this... To find...
Mesaverde Group a phrase (those words, in that order)
lead / zinc either word (or both)
lead & zinc items that contain both words (items that contain just one of the words will be ignored)
polar regions ! mars "polar regions" but not "mars"
forties p5 field "forties" preceding "field" by 5 words or fewer. You can include an asterisk * at the end of either word. Do not string together phrases (forties p5 oil field).
field w5 forties "field" within 5 words of "forties" (before or after). Do not include phrases.

Words joined by & / ! are evaluated in left-to-right order: ODP & DSDP / IPOD finds items that contain ODP and DSDP, or items that contain IPOD. Use parentheses to control evaluation order: red & (white / blue) finds items that are red and white or red and blue.

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Finding a Date

To find a date, use any reasonable format, including but not limited to the examples shown below:

31-Dec-98 Dec 31, 1998 1998 Dec Dec 98 December 1998 12-98

Do not use a forward slash to separate date elements unless you surround the date with quotation marks ("12/31/98").

You can use the symbols & / ! between dates to do AND-OR-NOT searches. For example, May 1998 / June 1998 finds all dates in May or June 1998.

You can do less than, greater than, and range searches for dates (see below).

Doing "less than," "greater than," and "between" searches

You can search for items greater than or less than a certain value, or within a range. This is most commonly done when searching for dates, but may also be done when searching for values or text. Use the symbols shown below. When used with a partial date, these symbols search from the beginning of the date (first day of the month or year). A range consists of two values, low and high, separated by a colon. Include spaces around the colon.

Symbol Meaning Example
< less than (before) < 1998 finds dates before January 1, 1998
<= less than or equal to <= 6-15-98 finds dates on or before June 15, 1998
> greater than (after) > 1998 finds dates after December 31, 1997
>= greater than or equal to >= 500 finds values greater than or equal to 500
: between 1997 : 1998 finds dates from Jan. 1, 1997 through Dec. 31, 1998 (inclusive)
200 : 300 finds values between 200 and 300 (inclusive)

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Using the AND-OR-NOT Droplist

If a search form includes an AND-OR-NOT droplist in front of each box, you can do more sophisticated searches. The Boolean operator you select for a box determines how the search criteria in that box will be combined with criteria already evaluated. Boxes are evaluated from top to bottom (first box to last).

Finding a term (exact, complete match)

A term is a complete item, with no additional text before or after. To search for a term, precede it with an equal sign (=). For example, =john smith finds only that complete term (does not find just "john" or just "smith" or that phrase embedded in other text).

Case and Punctuation

Case in query criteria is usually ignored (a search for joe smith finds Joe Smith). Punctuation is also ignored, except for the AND-OR-NOT symbols (& / !) and the colon for range searches ( : ). If you want these characters to be interpreted literally, use quotation marks ("C-13/C-12") or replace the punctuation with a space (C 13 C 12).

Reset Button

To clear query criteria, click the Reset button on the search form.

Submit Query Button

To start your search, click the Submit Query button.

Using Navigational Features

A successful search finds one or more records, which are displayed in your web browser as a report. Use the browser controls as you normally would, to browse, print, go back, etc. You can also:

  • Jump to other locations - Click links on the report to display more detail or jump to other pages.
  • Display additional pages - Click the Next and Previous buttons on the report page.
  • Utilize additional navigation options - Click the single left arrow (<) to move back one page. Click the double left arrow (<<) to jump back to the query page without clearing the last query.
  • Click the "Cold Regions Home" link to return to the Cold Regions Bibliography Project home page, where you will have the option of conducting a new Basic or Advanced search.

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Field Search Help

Field search help shows you what information is contained in each data base field, and also offers examples on how to optimize your queries for searching these fields. Use the table of contents below to jump to the topic of interest.

Title Field

Single words from titles may be searched separately or by using the &, /, or ! operators.

Type the word you want to find (bauxite) or type a phrase (electron paramagnetic resonance) to find those words, in that order. To find variations of word stems, type an asterisk at the end of one or more words (elast* wave*). Use the symbols & / ! between words or phrases to represent Boolean AND, OR, NOT. Include a space before and after the symbol. Use the proximity operators w# (within) and p# (preceding) to find words near each other. See examples below.

Type this... To find...
Mesaverde Group a phrase (those words, in that order)
lead / zinc either word (or both)
lead & zinc items that contain both words (items that contain just one of the words will be ignored)
polar regions ! mars "polar regions" but not "mars"
forties p5 field "forties" preceding "field" by 5 words or fewer. You can include an asterisk at the end of either word. Do not use multi-word phrases with the p# operator (such as "forties p5 oil field").
field w5 forties "field" within 5 words of "forties" (before or after). Do not use multi-word phrases with the w# operator.

Words joined by & / ! are evaluated in left-to-right order: ODP & DSDP / IPOD finds items that contain ODP and DSDP, or items that contain IPOD. Use parentheses to control evaluation order: red & (white / blue) finds items that are red and white or red and blue.

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Author Field

Author names may be searched using last names or by entering the last name followed by the initials.

Examples:

  • smith
  • smith, j.
  • smith, j.r.

In these examples, "smith" will retrieve all of the forms that follow.

Searching "smith, j." will retrieve "smith, j.r." as well as "smith, j."

Source Field

The source field contains journal titles, meeting names, publishers, volume and issue numbers, report numbers and page numbers. Search single words or phrases as follows:

Type the word you want to find (EOS) or type a phrase (Journal of Geophysical Research) to find those words, in that order. To find variations of word stems, type an asterisk at the end of one or more words (sediment* hum*). Use the symbols & / ! between words or phrases to represent Boolean AND, OR, NOT. Include a space before and after the symbol. Use the proximity operators w# (within) and p# (preceding) to find words near each other. See examples below.

Type this... To find...
Waterways Experiment Station a phrase (those words, in that order)
U.S. / United States either word (or both)
Water & Resources & Report items that contain all words (items that contain just one of the words will be ignored)
Army ! Corps of Engineers "Army" but not "Corps of Engineers"
forties p5 field "forties" preceding "field" by 5 words or fewer. You can include an asterisk at the end of either word. Do not use multi-word phrases with the p# operator (such as "forties p5 oil field").
field w5 forties "field" within 5 words of "forties" (before or after). Do not use multi-word phrases with the w# operator.

Words joined by & / ! are evaluated in left-to-right order: ODP & DSDP / IPOD finds items that contain ODP and DSDP, or items that contain IPOD. Use parentheses to control evaluation order: red & (white / blue) finds items that are red and white or red and blue.

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Publication Date Field

Many forms of the date may be used for searching. Remember that many publications supply only a year.

To find a date, use any reasonable format, including but not limited to the examples shown below:

31-Dec-98 Dec 31, 1998 1998 Dec Dec 98 December 1998 12-98

Do not use a forward slash to separate date elements unless you surround the date with quotation marks ("12/31/98").

You can use the symbols & / ! between dates to do AND-OR-NOT searches. For example, May 1998 / June 1998 finds all dates in May or June 1998.

You can do less than, greater than, and range searches for dates (see below).

Doing "less than," "greater than," and "between" searches

You can search for items greater than or less than a certain value, or within a range. This is most commonly done when searching for dates, but may also be done when searching for values or text. Use the symbols shown below. When used with a partial date, these symbols search from the beginning of the date (first day of the month or year). A range consists of two values, low and high, separated by a colon. Include spaces around the colon.

Symbol Meaning Example
< less than (before) < 1998 finds dates before January 1, 1998
<= less than or equal to <= 6-15-98 finds dates on or before June 15, 1998
> greater than (after) > 1998 finds dates after December 31, 1997
>= greater than or equal to >= 500 finds values greater than or equal to 500
: between 1997 : 1998 finds dates from Jan. 1, 1997 through Dec. 31, 1998 (inclusive)
200 : 300 finds values between 200 and 300 (inclusive)

Publication Type Field

The Publication Type field contains information on the type of publication. The following types may be included:

  • abstracts
  • conference paper or compendium article
  • journal article
  • map
  • monograph
  • other
  • patent
  • technical report

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CRREL Series Field

Note: The CRREL Series field appears only in the Bibliography on Cold Regions Science and Technology Database.

To narrow your search to only one of the CRREL, SIPRE, ACFEL or CRREL/ERDC Series, click on the drop-down menu on the right-hand side of the CRREL Series search box. Select the series from the displayed list of CRREL Series by either highlighting the desired series or by beginning to type the name of the series.

Example:

  • Letter Reports

To search for more than one CRREL or ERDC/CRREL Series, use the Source Field. To search for a series in a particular year, select the series name and add a date in the Publication Date field.

All series display in the Source Field.

Series Names:

  • Contract Reports
  • CRREL Reports
  • Letter Reports
  • Monographs
  • Miscellaneous Papers - includes publications published outside of CRREL, ERDC/CRREL, and ACFEL publication series, i.e. peer-reviewed journals, conference publications.
  • Research Reports
  • Special Reports
  • Technical Digests
  • Technical Notes
  • Technical Reports - includes publications published in ACFEL and CRREL Technical Report series.
  • Translations - includes publications published in CRREL Draft Translations, ACFEL, and SIPRE Translations series.

Display Options

Results are presented in Table View. This view contains Title and Publication Date with an option to click on a Full Record View.

You may change your display option by clicking on the drop-down box at the top of the screen. Additional options include Brief Record and Full Record. Brief Record includes sufficient information to identify the reference. Full Record includes all available information. Both Brief and Full Record may include a Text Online box.


Full-Text Availability

Where available, click on the Text Online box to view full-text on-screen. Many publications are freely available on-screen and will be viewable in your browser. Other publications may be available if your institution has a current subscription. If your institution does not have a subscription, you will usually be able to view an online abstract and may be offered an option to purchase a publication.

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